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VII, Nr. So, the binding probably occurred later than In addition to the interpretation of this dating to me that does not seem to be a logical statement. Formerly, the map expert H. The chain line width varies amid these examples between 2. The comparison with the parts of the watermarks of 4 examples of the CI printed in St.
This means that the four identical woodcut globular maps were printed about 20 years! It confirms my above mentioned hypothesis that the globular map at the UB Munich is indeed the first known state of these woodcuts On the occasion of applying research in preparation for the article on the oldest globe c.
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Figure 1A. Detail of A D G. This globular map is an anonymous, highly artistically decorated map, only known to exist in one single archetype, measuring The aesthetic character of the globular map using an immaculate technique leads to the assumption that these sections of the globular map were not meant to be cut out, but were made for a didactical, educational purpose.
Unrecognised until now, some hard to decipher letters could be identified on the exterior on the equator of the globular map: A B? This could be an epigraphic abbreviation More likely, the large and clearly distinguishable letters are an abbreviation. Germanus c. He was of German ancestry but lived and worked in Italy. Germanus is known for a pair of terrestrial and celestial globes he made in December for the Franciscan but nepotistic Pope Sixtus IV and his recently opened Library of the Vatican Babics, pp.
He is the inventor of the Donis Map Projection, which is exercised in the miniature trapezoidal framework characteristic for this globular map. In this innovative map projection, the parallels of latitude are straight lines equally spaced on the meridians 90 degrees from centre, while the meridians are circular arcs equally spaced along the equator and converge toward the poles. There is symmetry around the central meridian which is straight The image of Scandinavia on the globular map is like the piercing across the Arctic Circle, typical for D.
Figure 1B. Detail of the American Birth Certificate.
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Germanus and the Ptolemy Map edited in This is in contrast to the later world map of Henricus Martel lus. As mentioned earlier, it is quite relevant to acknowledge that this globular map is a copper engraving, and not a woodcut.
This fact shows a strong Italian influence and likely provenance. The typical German high quality and precision at that time in history surpassed the quality of local Italian engravers. The taste for Italian Renaissance Architecture Martin, pp. Another source was German Artists like A. The copper engraved globular map can be adopted to construct a globe with a diameter of c. The aforementioned makes an intriguing comment in c. The Portolan maps, made from goat skin may have served to P.newsite.yourmortgageoptions.ca/swing-issues.php
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Apian as an example for this pictographic comment. In addition all show the circumvention of South America which was discovered by Magellan in and depict the poles of the earth without land! To make sure, I applied the t test and used the print dimension Table 2 , Row 3 showing the dimension , plus the data for the Lenox Diameter: c. The circumference of c. The diameter of the smaller world during Renaissance 47 was calculated by someone who lived during this Renaissance in Tuscany and who wrote this down.
The person I refer to is Leonardo da Vinci. The diameter of the Renaissance world as reported by Leonardo measured 7. He does not refer to a land mile as each city had its own land mile but he refers to nautical miles as proven from his Manuscript MS F 68v Cantile, pp.
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In order to define the above mentioned scale, the empirical test was performed by the librarian Kyle R. He was asked to measure, using a straight line, distances on the Lenox, and to document this. Figure 3A. Lenox globe scale measuring Figure 3B. The result for A is 3. These distances today are A: c. The scale of the Lenox therefore is: One centimeter of distance on the Lenox equals a distance of km.
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A few critics may, of course, ask about the curvature of the earth, the application of spherical trigonometry and issues pertaining to the temperature of the copper 50 at the time of the measurements etc Fact is that the c. Another meaningful preliminary conclusion, based on the evidence that the Lenox is a cast from the Ostrich Egg globe, is that, one cannot change the size of an Ostrich Egg without breaking it. Only one globe with this particular diameter can be constructed with this scale reflecting the nautical renaissance mile calculation of the world as measured and composed by Leonardo da Vinci.
The More notably it differs only 1. One soldi is one 20 th of the Florentine braccio of The issue of Leonardo not having recorded the discovery of the New World has been the subject of debate. It was suggested that because he did not write about it, that he did not know. Carlo Pedretti in May and August , at his private home, near Vinci, I asked him if Leonardo knew about the discoveries of a new world. I did this after showing him the reverse of Codice MS I 29v world section divided in 4 parts, instead of 3 and the Ptolemaic projection of the old world by Leonardo da Vinci, from c.
His answer was that there was no doubt whatsoever that any person living in Florence, so also Leonardo da Vinci, was very much aware of the widespread news of discovery of a newly found part of the world, so also about what a few years later would be called America, and that he was even influenced by it Artists are generally the seismographs of the society and of the societal and cultural influences on the surroundings in which they live. The drawing c. It would not be the first time that a copyist benefited from the intelligence of this universal genius, and this replicating, handling Italian measurements, was reflected in the size of a globular map, issued only a few years later.
The elegantly lettered capital letters Bembo type are applied without letter punches. The globular map furthermore shows inscriptions, coastal outlines, dots for cities possible potential source of taxable income as animated by the decorator L. Boulengier , braided waves Figure 1 C : Detail of waves , furious whirlpools, perilous and billowing seas Lynam, p. The graceful arched borders etc. Figure 1C. Detail of waves.
From the early beginning, and as hatching is easy work for engravers, the coast-line of the continents etc. A particular feature, namely the elaborate treatment of the seas has the greatest similarity to the first ever Italian printed copper engraved and rarest of incunabula Ptolemy world maps Campbell, pp. The aforementioned uses a conical projection and is printed in Bologna The positional little circular dots on maps to mark localities are, as stated by one of the world leading early map experts Dr.
Peter Meurer, a critical innovation which characterises the work of Germanus Meurer, p. American continent. The latter may even have a futuristic evangelistic connotation. The decorator, in this case L. The latter, who was also an astrologer, was virtuous in filling up map space and even put trees on Greenland. A decorative detail of one of his maps Durand, p. The aforementioned manuscript atlas, a treasure by the Benedictine Donnus Nicolaus Germanus Donnus is an abbreviation of Dominus and stands for ordained clergyman , is now kept in the National Library in Warsaw Galezwoski, pp.
The above traces and the size of the map likely intended for a globe with a diameter of c. Germanus in particular. The aforementioned worked in at the papal court in Rome. According to Dr. This also means he never came to Rome or to Florence. As the French were invaders of Northern Italy and had direct access to Renaissance treasures and documents, I believe the engraving, perhaps still in its layout form, was part of booty brought back by the French from Northern Italy during the Italian wars. As I will show, he is not the only one who is going through this unpleasant experience of finding unauthorised copies.
The cartographic imagery typical for a specific time and culture, reveals not only a technological development in copper globular map, but reflects a symbolic and cultural meaning Mano, pp. Upon comparing the globular map of the UB Munich, there seems to be no doubt that the woodcut globular maps were made by replicating the highly detailed globular map, but definite proof, at this stage is still wanting. The comparison with the large world map which seems to be a logical step, did not offer any positive results. To underline this statement, a few illustrations may suffice 60 : The coast of Guinea is c.
The line of the tropic of Cancer is south of Spagnola Cuba. A few geographical names on this globular map have not been identified yet. Below the small island, a fishlike creature is depicted. This inscription, with some misspellings, is an additional piece of evidence that Boulengier had access to the Cosmographiae Introductio printed in St. The adapted reprint is published without a date in the Colophon but with in the content. Originally it was, thought to be from c.
This globular map as mentioned was found together with 2 other loose copper engraved plates, both of which are also unsigned.
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At the bottom there is a dedication in which he expresses his high esteem for Robertet. For further details see Appendix 1. Boulengier writes in a dedicatory letter of his CI that he had noted other globes which had been previously published by others He concedes the printed authorship of someone else and copied these letters A D G outside of the main picture on this globular map.
I tested Harisse on his statement statement and sound evidence. In addition to the fact that both the Astrolabium Physicum 65 and the Motus none Spere have the date printed on. Figure 4. Astrolabium Physicum.